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Glossary

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, U, V, W
​Term ​Definition ​Points of Reference

A​​ ​

​Accessible ​Refers to a site, work environment, service, or program that is easy to approach, enter, operate, participate in, and/or use safely and with dignity by a person with a disability. ​ITP-ACC001
​Access Point ​A wireless local access network (WLAN) transmitter/receiver that acts as a connection between wireless clients and wired networks. ​ITP-NET001
​Account ​The online credential being presented as representing a person. ​ITP-SEC037
​American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ​ANSI serves as a quasi-national standards organization. It provides area charters for groups that establish standards in specific fields. ANSI is unique among the world’s standards groups as a nongovernmental body granted the sole vote for the United States in the International Standards Organization (ISO). ​ITP-INF001
​Anonymous logon (login) ​Access to a system which does not require any information on the person accessing the system. ​ITP-SEC037
​Authentication ​The process of establishing confidence in the validity of a person’s logon account, usually as a prerequisite for granting access to resources in an information system. ​ITP-SEC037
​Authentication Method ​The type of authentication being used to validate a person’s logon account.  There are three categories: 1. Something you know (e.g. PIN, password, shared information) 2. Something you possess (e.g. token, smart card, digital certificate) 3. Something you are (biometrics – e.g. fingerprint, voice, iris, face) ​ITP-SEC037
​Authorization ​The process of verifying that an authenticated account is permitted to have access to a system based on the person’s business responsibilities. ​ITP-SEC037
​Authorized Users ​Commonwealth of Pennsylvania employees, contractors, consultants, volunteers, or any other user who utilizes or has access to IT Resources. ​MD 205.34
MD 205.42
MD 240.11
​Availability ​Ensuring timely and reliable access to and use of information. A loss of availability is the disruption of access to or use of information or an information system. ​44 U.S.C. Section 3542, Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 199
​Availability (SLA-defined) ​A service level metric that measures the percentage of time the application is available during the applicable Measurement Window. This measurement is by application, not by server instance. Calculation: A = (T-M-D) / (T-M) x 100%. A = Availability, T = Total Monthly Minutes, M = Approved Maintenance Time, D = Downtime ​RFD-SER001A (pending)

B​ ​ ​

​Business Partner ​Any entity identified by statute, regulation, or contract as being an agent of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. A business partner connection is an interface for connecting business partners to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (COPA) network. ​ITP-NET008
​Business Process Management (BPM) ​A management practice that emphasizes the control, management, and continuous improvement of business processes. Business Process Management Suites (BPMS) are an integrated collection of software technologies that support the BPM practice. ​N/A
​Business Rules Engine (BRE) ​A software system that executes one or more business rules in a runtime production environment. The rules might come from company policy, (“All customers that spend more than $100 at one time will receive a 10% discount”), legal rules, or other sources. ​N/A

C​ ​ ​

​Capital Planning ​The management and decision-making process associated with the planning, selection, control, and evaluation of investments in resources. ​N/A
​Change Management ​The process of setting expectations and involving stakeholders in how a process or activity will be changed. ​N/A
​CIA Triad ​Three fundamental tenets of information security: Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability ​Cybersecurity and Cyberwar (Singer & Friedman)
​Commonwealth Application Certification and Accreditation (CA)2 ​A security assessment for Commonwealth IT systems involved in the transmission or storage of electronic transactions such as electronic records and electronic signatures. ​MD 210.12
ITP-SEC005
​Commonwealth of PA Procurement and Architectural Review (COPPAR) ​The review mechanism the Office for Information Technology uses to review agency requests for policy waivers and large IT-related procurements. ​ITP-BUS000
ITP-BUS004
ITP-SEC000
​Confidentiality ​Preserving authorized restrictions on access and disclosure, including means for protecting personal privacy and proprietary information. A loss of confidentiality is the unauthorized disclosure of information. ​44 U.S.C. Section 3542, Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 199
​Connection ​Includes remote access system (RAS), a tool used to connect remotely to the commonwealth network. Authorized Users may need to connect to the network from home or another remote location, to perform their job functions. Remote access is coordinated by the Office of Administration, Office for Information Technology (OA/OIT), and users must have the Cisco virtual private network (VPN) client on their computer and a valid digital certificate. Connection does not include connecting with Authorized User devices to Office Outlook Web Access. ​MD 240.11

D​ ​ ​

​Data ​A value or set of values representing a specific concept or concepts. Data become “information” when analyzed and possibly combined with other data in order to extract meaning, and to provide context. ​ITP-INF013
project-open-data.cio.gov
​Data Architecture ​Describes the data structures used by a business and its applications. The architecture sets the data standards for all information systems in the organization and communicates a model of the interactions of data in those systems. ​ITP-INF013 (pending)
​Data Element Encryption ​A technique that encrypts individual data elements instead of encrypting an entire file or database. Common examples of data element encryption include column level database encryption and encryption of a Social Security Number (SSN) before writing it to a file. Data element encryption is used to selectively apply encryption, and may be used to reduce encryption/decryption overhead, to protect different elements with different keys, or to simplify adding encryption to applications. ​ITP-SEC020
​Database Management System (DBMS) ​Software to manage a database that provides a common and controlled approach maintaining data integrity and accessibility in storing data, adding new data, and in modifying and retrieving existing data within a database. Security and backups are key components. ​ITP-INF001
​Domain Team ​A group of individuals comprised of subject matter experts or domain experts who have knowledge or skills in a particular area. The domain teams are an integral part of the commonwealth IT governance framework working in collaboration with OA/OIT and the Enterprise Architecture Committee (EAC). ​ITP-BUS004

E​ ​ ​

​eDiscovery ​Electronic discovery (also called e-discovery or eDiscovery) refers to any process in which electronically stored information is sought, located, secured, and searched with the intent of using it as evidence in a civil or criminal legal case. Electronically stored information, for the purpose of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, is information created, manipulated, communicated, stored, and best utilized in digital form, requiring the use of computer hardware and software. ​OA Legal
​e-Discovery ​Any process in which electronically stored information (ESI) is identified, collected, searched, and analyzed for production in the discovery phase of litigation. ​ITP-INF009
​Electronic ​Relating to technology having electrical, digital, magnetic, wireless, optical, electromagnetic, or similar capabilities. ​MD 210.12
​Electronic Record ​A record created, generated, sent, communicated, received, or stored by electronic means. This term includes permits, licenses, applications, and other documents required or issued by an executive agency. ​MD 210.12
​Electronic Signature ​An electronic sound, symbol, or process attached to or logically associated with a record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record. ​MD 210.12
​Electronic Storage System ​A system to prepare, record, transfer, index, store, preserve, retrieve, and reproduce books and records by either electronically imaging hardcopy (paper) documents to an electronic storage media or transferring computerized books and records to an electronic storage media. ​MD 210.12
IRS Rev. Procedure 97-22
​Electronic Transaction ​The electronic sharing of information including: Electronic posting of data on a network. The exchange of an electronic record or electronic signature by an executive agency with a person or automated system to: facilitate access to restricted information; purchase, sell, or lease goods, services, or construction; transfer funds; facilitate the submission of an electronic record or electronic signature required or accepted by the commonwealth; or create a record upon which the commonwealth or another person will reasonably rely. ​MD 210.12
​Electronically Stored Information (ESI) ​Any data or information produced or received on commonwealth IT Resources that resides on commonwealth-managed storage solutions, either on premise or off premise (i.e. cloud storage, backup tapes). ​ITP-INF009
​Emergency Maintenance (Enterprise Services) ​Maintenance necessary when a problem exists on any Enterprise infrastructure component or Enterprise Service that is causing major disruptions to one or more agencies. ​ITP-SYM010
​Enterprise Architecture ​The analysis and documentation of an enterprise in its current and future states from an integrated strategy, business, and technology perspective. ​N/A
​Enterprise Architecture Artifact ​A documentation product such as a text document, diagram, spreadsheet, briefing slides, or video clip that document EA components in a consistent way across the entire architecture. ​N/A
​Enterprise Architecture Component ​Changeable resources that provide capabilities at each level of a framework. Examples include strategic goals and initiatives, business services, web services, software applications, voice/data/mobile networks, buildings. ​N/A
​Enterprise Information Security Office (EISO) ​Office within the Office of Administration, Office for Information Technology tasked with managing the enterprise IT security posture for the commonwealth as it pertains to governance, risk, and compliance. ​ITP-SEC000
​Enterprise IT Service Offering ​An Enterprise IT Service Offering is made up from a combination of people, processes and technology that supports a customer's business. An Enterprise IT Service Offering is a means of delivering value to customers by facilitating the outcomes customers want to achieve without the ownership of costs and risks. ​ITP-BUS007
​Enterprise IT Service Offering ​A combination of people, processes, and technology that supports a customer's business. An Enterprise IT service offering is a means of delivering value to customers by facilitating the outcomes customers want to achieve without the ownership of costs and risks. ​ITP-BUS007
​Enterprise Maintenance (Enterprise Services) ​Maintenance is considered Enterprise if:
  • It affects any Enterprise infrastructure component or Enterprise service
  • It affects two or more agencies at one site
  • It affects two or more agencies at multiple sites
  • It affects one agency at multiple sites
​ITP-SYM010
​Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) ​Refers to a software architecture construct. This construct is typically implemented by technologies found in a category of middleware infrastructure products, based on recognized standards, which provide fundamental services for more complex architectures via an event-driven and standards-based messaging engine (the bus). ​N/A
​Event (Security) ​An observable occurrence in a system or network. Events include, but are not limited to, a user connecting to a file share, a server receiving a request for a Web page, a user sending electronic mail (e-mail), and a firewall blocking a connection attempt. ​ITP-SEC021
​Event Correlation (Security) ​The process of monitoring events in order to identify patterns that may signify attacks, intrusions, misuse or failure. ​ITP-SEC021
​Executive Agency ​A department, board, commission, council, authority, officer, or agency subject to the policy, supervision, and control of the Governor. ​MD 210.12

F​ ​ ​

​Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) ​A federal IT standard established by the National Institute of Standards and Technology ​ITP-SEC000
ITP-SEC037
​File Encryption ​A technique that encrypts files on a file system, without encrypting the file system itself or the entire disk. A file encrypting application may include functionality to: archive multiple files into a single file before or after encrypting; produce self-decrypting files; or automatically encrypt files or folders based on policies or locations. File encryption is often used to protect files being sent through email or written to removable media. ​ITP-SEC020
​Full Disk Encryption A computer security technique that encrypts data stored on a mass storage or removable device, and automatically decrypts the information when an authorized user requests it. Full disk encryption is often used to signify that everything on a disk or removable device, including the operating system and other executable, is encrypted. Full disk encryption includes hardware encryption, such as configuring a tape drive to encrypt all backup data before write. ​ITP-SEC020
​Functional Testing ​Validating an application correctly performs functions identified in requirements documents. This includes testing for normal and erroneous input. Functional testing can be performed manually or automated. ​ITP-APP014

G

​General Maintenance (Enterprise Services) ​Maintenance performed by a service provider. This type of maintenance is performed on the service offering which affects multiple customers, and is vital to the integrity of the services provided. ​ITP-SYM010
​Guideline ​A recommended best practice or course of action usually with some latitude in its use and implementation. ​ITP-BUS004

H

​High-level Data Model (HDM) ​Used to communicate core data concepts, rules, and definitions to a business user as part of an application development initiative. ​S. Hobermen. Data Modeling for Business

I ​ ​

​Identify and Access Management (IAM) ​The security discipline that enables the right individuals to access the right resources at the right times for the right reasons. ​ITP-SEC038
​Identity Proofing ​The process of verifying the real life identity being claimed by a person. ​ITP-SEC037
​IEEE ​The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, a non-profit, technical professional association and leading authority in technical areas ranging from computer engineering, biomedical technology and telecommunications, to electric power, aerospace and consumer electronics, among others. ​ITP-NET001
​Illegal Use ​Use which violates local, state, or federal law as well as CoPA or agency IT policy. ​MD 245.18
​Imaged Document ​A copy of an original hardcopy (paper) record that has been electronically imaged to an electronic storage system. An imaged document contains all the recorded information that appears on the original document and be able to serves the purpose(s) for which the original was created or retained. ​MD 210.12
IRS Rev. Procedure 97-22
​Immediate Maintenance (Enterprise Services) ​Maintenance necessary when a problem exists on any Enterprise infrastructure component or Enterprise Service that has the potential to cause major disruptions to one or more agencies. ​ITP-SYM010
​Inappropriate Use ​A violation of the goals, purpose and intended use of the network. ​MD 245.18
​Incident (Security) ​A violation or imminent threat of violation of computer security policies, acceptable use policies, or standard security practices. Examples of an incident are denial of service, malicious code, unauthorized access and inappropriate usage. ​ITP-SEC021
​Incident Response (Security) ​The manual and automated procedures used to respond to reported incidents (real or suspected), system failures and errors, and other undesirable events. ​ITP-SEC021
​Information ​Data, text, images, sounds, codes, computer programs, software, data bases, or the like. ​MD 210.12
​Information Resources ​Information and related resources, such as personnel, equipment, funds, and information technology ​44 U.S.C. Section 3502
​Information Security ​Protecting information and information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction in order to provide: Integrity, Confidentiality, Availability. ​44 U.S.C. Section 3542
​Information System ​A discrete set of information resources organized for the collection, processing, maintenance, use, sharing, dissemination, or disposition of information. ​NIST 800-39
ITP-BUS008
​Information Technology ​The resources applied in an enterprise for the purpose of storing, retrieving, transmitting, and manipulating data through use of software and hardware infrastructure. ​ITP-BUS000
​Information Technology Policy (IT Policy, ITP) ​A document published by OA/OIT that defines the expectations, requirements, standards, technical specifications, procedures, and guidelines to agencies that use and manage IT resources and services. Defined general areas (domains) in which IT policies encompass and are categorized. The policy domains and their abbreviations are: Accessiblity (ACC), Application (APP), Business (BUS), Information (INF, INFG, INFRM), Integration (INT), IT Procurement (PRO), Network (NET), Platform (PLT), Privacy (PRV), Project Management (EPM), Security (SEC), Services (SER), Software (SFT), Systems Management (SYM) ​ITP-BUS000
ITP-BUS004
​Information Type ​A specific category of information (e.g. privacy, medical, proprietary, financial, investigative, contractor sensitive, security management) defined by an organization, specific law, executive order, directive, policy, or regulation. ​Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 199
​Integration Testing ​The phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing. ​ITP-APP014
​Integrity ​Guarding against improper information modification or destruction, and includes ensuring information nonrepudiation and authenticity. A  loss of integrity is the unauthorized modification or destruction of information. ​44 U.S.C. Section 3542
Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 199
​Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA) ​A binding contractual agreement executed by the Commonwealth with the federal government or its agencies, another state or its agencies, or with instrumentalities of the Commonwealth (boroughs, cities, counties, state-related institutions, etc.). These agreements should be processed in accordance with the requirements of the Commonwealth Attorneys Act, 71 P.S. §§ 732-101. ​ITP-PRO001
​Internal Communications ​Any method utilized by commonwealth employees and contractors to share information as part of their day-to-day business tasks and functions, including but not limited to, electronic mail (email) and enterprise social media. ​ITP-BUS009 (pending)
​Invitation For Bids (IFB) ​All documents, including those either attached or incorporated by reference, used for soliciting bids. ​ITP-PRO001
​Invitation To Qualify (ITQ) ​The name given to certain multiple-award contracts issued by the Commonwealth pursuant to Section 517 of the Procurement Code. ITQ contracts are issued to pre-qualified suppliers that will compete in the request for quote (RFQ) process. ​ITP-PRO001
​ISO ​Information Security Office ​MD 240.12
​Issuing Office ​The sole point of contact for the offerors to contact the purchasing agency with any questions in regard to a request for proposals. ​ITP-PRO001
​IT Policy Business Owner ​OA/OIT Enterprise personnel or program area responsible for ensuring assigned IT policy aligns with the enterprise's current IT environment. ​ITP-BUS000
​IT Policy Coordinator ​OA/OIT Enterprise personnel responsible for the management of the IT policy life cycle and facilitating the IT policy governance process. ​ITP-BUS000
​IT Policy Domain Owner ​​OA/OIT Enterprise personnel responsible for the management of a specific domain of IT policies. ​ITP-BUS000
​IT Policy Waiver ​A temporary exemption granted to commonwealth agencies for non-compliance with a specific OA/OIT IT Policy. ​ITP-BUS004
​IT Resources ​(MD version): Include, but are not limited to, the following: the commonwealth’s computer systems, together with any electronic resource used for communications, which includes, but is not limited to laptops, individual desktop computers, wired or wireless telephones, cellular phones, pagers, beepers, personal data assistants and handheld devices, and, further, includes use of the internet, electronic mail (email), instant messaging, texting, voice mail, facsimile, copiers, printers or other electronic messaging through commonwealth facilities, equipment or networks (collectively "IT Resources"). 
(ITP version): Include, but are not limited to, the staff, software,  hardware, systems, services, tools, plans, data, and related training materials and documentation that in combination support business activities.
​MD 205.34
MD 205.42
MD 240.11
ITP-SEC012

J ​ ​

​Jailbreaking/Rooting ​The process used to modify the operating system on a mobile device.  The act of “jailbreaking” or “rooting” a mobile device allows the user control over the device including removing any vendor imposed restrictions on the products. ​ITP-SEC035
​Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) ​A set of programming Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that allow easy connection to a wide range of databases through Java programs. ​ITP-INF001

K ​ ​

​Keystone Key ​The online account established for a person and stored in the enterprise citizen directory SRPROD ​ITP-SEC037
​Knowledge Based Authentication (KBA) ​An identity verification method where the person is asked a selection of questions gathered from information on that person from a variety of public and commercial data systems with the assumption that the real person would know the correct answers whereas an imposter would not. ​ITP-SEC037

​L ​ ​

​Level of Assurance (LOA) ​The measurement of the degree or level of confidence that the person is who they are claiming to be. ​ITP-SEC037
​Load Testing ​Covers both performance testing and stress testing. ​ITP-APP014
​Local Area Network (LAN) ​A network that connects computers, printers and perhaps other devices within a department, building or house. ​ITP-NET001
​Log (Security) ​A file that lists actions that have occurred. ​ITP-SEC021
​Logon Banner ​A display that provides a definitive warning about access, authorization, and monitoring activity requirements and allows a user to acknowledge this display prior to logging into an IT Resource. ​ITP-SEC012

M ​ ​

​Mbps ​Millions of bits per second, or Megabits per Second, is the measurement of bandwidth on a telecommunication medium. Bandwidth is also sometimes measured in Kbps (kilobits per second), or Gbps (billions of bits per second). ​ITP-NET001
​Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) ​A cooperative arrangement between executive agencies or, if concurred with both parties, an arrangement between an executive agency and an independent agency, as defined in the Commonwealth Attorneys Act, 71 P.S. §§ 732-101, which does not create any contractual rights or obligations between the signatory agencies. This document does not require approval by the Office of Attorney General. ​ITP-PRO001
​Mobile Application Management (MAM) ​The process of developing, procuring, deploying and managing the configuration, distribution and access of in-house and commercially developed mobile apps through an enterprise app virtual marketplace or a consumer app store. ​ITP-SEC035
​Mobile Communication Device (Mobile Devices) ​Any mobile phone, smartphone, laptop, or media tablet that transmits, stores, and receives data, text, and/or voice with a connection to a wireless LAN and/or cellular network. ​ITP-SEC035
​Mobile Device ​(MD version) A device easily removable and stores data that can be connected to the Commonwealth network, workstation or other computing device via cable, Universal Serial Bus (USB), Firewire (IEEE 1394), I-LINK, infrared, radio frequency, personal computer memory card international association (PCMCIA), or any other external connection that would allow data to be transferred and removed
(ITP version). Mobile devices include, but are not limited to smart phones, laptops, tablets, zip drives, floppy diskettes, recording and re-writeable compact disks (CD), recordable and re-writeable digital video disks (DVD), USB flash digital media devices (thumb drives), memory sticks/cards, PC card storage devices of all types and external hard drives.
​MD 240.12
ITP-PLT011
​Mobile Device Management (MDM) ​Software technologies that secure, monitor, manage and support mobile devices deployed across the enterprise. By controlling and protecting the data and configuration settings for all mobile devices in the network, MDM can reduce support costs, security, and business risks. The intent of MDM is to optimize the functionality and security of a mobile communications network while minimizing cost and downtime. ​ITP-SEC035
​Mobile Email Management (MEM) ​Mobile Email Management (MEM) controls which mobile devices that can access email, prevents data loss, encrypts sensitive data and enforces compliance policies. ​ITP-SEC035
​Multi-Factor Authentication ​The use of two or more of the Authentication Methods.  Two-factor would employ one each of two of the methods; three-factor would employ one each of all three methods. ​ITP-SEC037
​Multi-Homed/Split Tunneling ​Simultaneously using two different networks or connections, such as USB, wireless, cellular, or Bluetooth, or near-field communications (NFC). ​ITP-SEC035

N ​ ​

​NASCIO ​National Association of State Chief Information Officers ​ITP-SEC037
​National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) ​A division of the federal Department of Commerce tasked with research and, including establishment of federal IT standards. ​ITP-SEC000
ITP-SEC037
​National Strategy for Trusted Identity in Cyberspace (NSTIC) ​A federal initiative for secure, privacy enhancing identities in cyberspace. ​ITP-SEC037
​Non-Degradation of Service Availability (SLA-defined) ​A service level metric that measures the percentage of time the application is non-degraded during the applicable Measurement Window. This measurement is by application, not by server instance. Degradation shall mean a Service that tests as fully operational but is degraded below the baselines established during acceptance testing. This includes, but is not limited to slow performance and/or intermittent system errors. Calculation: N = (T - M - D) / (T - M) x 100%. N = Non-Degradation, T = Total Monthly Minutes, M = Approved Maintenance Time, D = Time Service is Degraded. ​RFD-SER001A (pending)
​Notice of Forth Coming Procurement (NFP) ​Public notice posted to the Pennsylvania eMarketplace (http://www.emarketplace.state.pa.us/) website notifying vendors of an upcoming procurement. Required for all procurement in excess of $250,000. ​ITP-PRO001

O ​ ​

​Office of Administration, Office for Information Technology Enterprise (OA/OIT Enterprise) ​Consists of the offices managed by the Commonwealth Chief Information Officer (CIO), Chief Technology Officer (CTO), Chief Information Security Officer (CISO), Director of Office of Strategy and Management, and Director of Enterprise Services and their respective program areas. ​ITP-BUS000
​Open Data ​Data that can be freely used, re-used, and distributed by any entity, subject only, to the requirements to attribute.
​ITP-INF013
​Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) ​Vendor-neutral interface, based on the SQL Access Group (SAG) specifications, that permits maximum interoperability among diverse Database Management Systems. The ODBC interface defines: function calls that allow an application to connect to a DBMS, execute SQL statements, and retrieve results; a standard way to connect and log on to a DBMS; and a standardized representation for data types. Database drivers link the application to their choice of DBMS. ​ITP-INF001

P ​ ​

​Performance Testing ​Performance testing identifies bottlenecks during high volume simulation. ​ITP-APP014
​Personally Identifiable Information (PII) ​Any information about an individual maintained by an agency, including (1) any information that can be used to distinguish or trace an individual‘s identity, such as name, social security number, date and place of birth, mother‘s maiden name, or biometric records; and (2) any other information that is linked or linkable to an individual, such as medical, educational, financial, and employment information. ​ITP-INF000
ITP-SEC025
NIST SP 800-122
​Privately Owned ​Employee or contractor owned or leased asset in which the Commonwealth has no responsibility for the procurement or maintenance of and is solely the responsibility of the employee or contractor. ​ITP-PLT012
​Privileged Account ​An account that have virtually unlimited access to all programs, files, and  resources on a computer system. Users shall not be given access to privileged accounts without the specific approval of the agency chief security officer. Privileged accounts must be used only for the purposes for which they were authorized and only for conducting CoPA business. ​MD 245.18
​Privileged Identity Management Solution ​Software or tool that provides IT administrators a method of managing privileged user accounts and access rights to IT resources. ​ITP-SEC038
​Privileged User ​A user who, by virtue of function, has been allocated powers within a computer system, which are greater than those available to the majority of users of said computer system. ​SANS.org
ITP-SEC038
​Procedure ​Operational document that outlines predefined step-by-step sequence of instructions, activities, or course of action that must be followed in order to correctly accomplish a particular task. ​ITP-BUS004
​Promiscuous Mode ​A mode for a network controller that causes the controller to pass all traffic it receives to the device rather than passing only the frames that the controller is intended to receive. This mode is normally used for packet sniffing. ​ITP-SEC035
​Public Record ​A record of a Commonwealth agency that is: Not exempt under Section 708 of the Right-to-Know-Law;  Not exempt from being disclosed under any other Federal or State law or regulation or judicial order or degree; Bot protected by privilege. ​ITP-BUS009 (pending)

R ​ ​

​Record ​Information, regardless of physical form or characteristics, that document a transaction or activity of an agency and that is created, received or retained pursuant to law or in connection with a transaction, business or activity of the agency.  The term includes a document, paper, letter, map, book, tape, photograph, film or sound recording, information stored or maintained electronically, and a data-processed or image-processed document. ​MD 205.42
MD 210.12
​Regression Testing ​Allows a consistent and repeatable validation of each new release of an application. This ensures no new defects have been introduced with the latest maintenance. ​ITP-APP014
​Remote Access ​Ability for an organization's users to access its non-public computing resources from external locations other than the organization's facilities. ​NIST SP 800-46
​Request for Proposal (RFP) ​An RFP is a competitive sealed method of procurement where proposals are solicited and the award is made to the responsible offeror whose proposal is determined, in writing, to be the most advantageous to the purchasing Agency. An RFP is scored in three separate parts; (1) Technical Evaluation, (2) Cost Evaluation, and (3) Small Diverse Business (SBD) Participation. ​ITP-PRO001
​Request for Quote (RFQ) ​An RFQ is a competitive sealed method of procurement where quotes are solicited and the award is made to the responsible contractor whose quote is determined, in writing, to be the most advantageous to the purchasing Agency. An RFQ can be awarded via a best value determination or scored in three separate parts; (1) Technical Evaluation, (2) Cost Evaluation, and (3) Small Diverse Business (SBD) Participation. ​ITP-PRO001
​Resolution Time (SLA-defined) ​Also referred to as Problem Circumvention, a service level metric that details the time required for circumvention or solution after reporting a problem. ​RFD-SER001A (pending)

S ​ ​

​Sanitization ​A process to render access to target data (the data subject to the sanitization technique) on the media infeasible for a given level of recovery effort. Three categories: Clear, Purge, and Destroy. ​NIST SP 800-88 Rev. 1
​Scope (IT Policy) ​This ITP applies to all departments, boards, commissions and councils under the Governor’s jurisdiction. Agencies not under the Governor’s jurisdiction are strongly encouraged to follow this ITP. ​All ITPs
​Security Assessment ​A process conducted by the Office of Administration, Office for Information Technology’s Enterprise Information Security Office that defines, identifies, and classifies security vulnerabilities of IT Resources. ​MD 310.24
​Security Information and Event Managers (SIEM) ​A set of tools used by IT professionals and system administrators to manage multiple security applications and devices, and to respond automatically to resolve security incidents and provides real-time monitoring and historical reporting of information security events from networks, servers, systems, applications and more. ​ITP-SEC021
​Server and Desktop Systems ​Applies to all Commonwealth-issued devices utilized to run and access IT resources. All smartphones and non-Microsoft mobile devices (i.e. tablets) are not in scope. ​ITP-SYM006
​Service Engagement Review Process (SERP) ​Commonwealth review process to ensure new services being introduced into IT environments to mitigate potential risks and disruptions of Commonwealth business. ​ITP-NET008
​Service Owner ​Accountable for the availability, performance, quality, and cost of one or more services. Deals directly with the Service Customer or proxy, usually in the context of a Service Level Agreement or Operating Level Agreement. Service Owner is responsible for day-to-day operation of the service. ​N/A
​Service Set Identifier (SSID) ​Identifies and specifies which 802.11 network is being joined. ​ITP-NET001
​Smartphone ​A mobile communication device with voice, messaging, scheduling, email and Internet capabilities. Smartphones also permit access to application stores, where additional software can be obtained for installation on the mobile device. ​ITP-SEC035
​Social Media ​Web-based and mobile technologies used to turn communication into interactive dialogue. The term includes, but is not limited to, blogs, RSS, discussion boards, wikis, video sharing sites, mash-ups and folksonomies. ​MD 205.42
​Sole Source ​The process by which an agency requests a sole/single vendor to procure to procure materials or services.  This type of procurement must be pre-approved by Department of General Services, Bureau of Procurement (DGS BOP) or Office of Administration, Office for Information Technology (OA/OIT BOP). ​ITP-PRO001
​Stakeholder ​Everyone who is or will be affected by a policy, program, project, activity, or resource. ​N/A
​Standalone Purchase Order ​A purchase order processed not in reference to an existing contract or solicitation.  Standalone purchase orders must be completed in accordance with Part I Chapter I “General Provisions” and Part I Chapter 7 “Threshold and Delegations.” ​ITP-PRO001
​Standard ​Universally or widely accepted, agreed upon written definition, limit, or rule, approved and monitored for compliance by an authoritative agency, professional organization, or recognized body as a minimum acceptable benchmark. ​ITP-BUS004
​Standard Maintenance (Enterprise Services) ​OA-approved, risk-assessed, routine administrative maintenance on an Enterprise infrastructure component or Enterprise service. ​ITP-SYM010
​Stress Testing ​Used to determine the load under which the application ceases to perform acceptably. ​ITP-APP014
​Structured Query Language (SQL) ​A relational data language that provides a consistent, English keyword-oriented set of facilities for query, data definition, data manipulation and data control. It is a programmed interface to relational database management systems. ​ITP-INF001
​System Testing ​Testing conducted on a complete integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. ​ITP-APP014
​System Unavailability Notification (SLA-defined) ​A service level metric that details the time from discovering or receiving notice of system unavailability until notification is sent to the Commonwealth. ​RFD-SER001A (pending)

T ​ ​

​Tablet ​An open-face wireless device with touch screen display, primarily used in the consumption of media. These devices may also have messaging, scheduling, email, and Internet capabilities and a camera. Tablets may have open-source OSs (such as Android) or closed OSs under the control of OS vendors and/or device manufacturers (such as Apple and Microsoft). Media tablets may or may not support a mobile application store. ​ITP-SEC035
​Technical Specification ​An explicit set of requirements outlining the specific characteristics, features, capabilities, of a product or technology (e.g., levels of quality, architectural, functions, performance, usability, compatibility, reliability, safety, scalability, interoperability, or other dimensions) ​ITP-BUS004
​Technology Maturity Lifecycle (TML) ​The technology maturity life cycle (TML) defines the varying life span stages in which a technology product development sustains its competitive and economic value over a particular timeframe. The TML has four distinct stages: Current: Technologies/standards that are supported by the commonwealth and meeting the requirements of the enterprise architecture. They are recommended for use. Contained: Technologies/standards that no longer meet the requirements of the current enterprise architecture.  They are not recommended for use. They are to be phased out over time.  No date has been set for their discontinuance. Retire: Technologies/standards are being phased out. Plans are to be developed for their replacement, especially if there is risk involved, such as lack of vendor support. A date for retirement has been set. Emerging: Technologies/standards that have the potential to become current technologies/standards. At the present time, they are to be used only in pilot or test environments where they can be evaluated. Use of these technologies is restricted to a limited production mode, and requires approval of a waiver request. Research technologies are less widely accepted and time will determine if they will become a standard. ​ITP-BUS004
​Telecommunications Management Officer (TMO) ​A commonwealth employee designated by the agency head to oversee the communications services of the agency and/or worksite. ​MD 240.11
​Threat Modeling ​Identifying resources of interest and the feasible threats, vulnerabilities, and security controls related to these resources, quantifying the likelihood of successful attacks and their impacts, and analyzing the information to determine where security controls need to be improved or added. ​NIST SP 800-46
​Transitory Record ​Records that have little or no documentary or evidential value and that need not to be set aside for future use.  ​ITP-BUS009

U ​ ​

​Unit Testing ​Functional testing on each module in an application. Used early in development process before all components are completed. ​ITP-APP014
​US-CERT ​United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team tasked with providing Cybersecurity resources and notifications for information security officers. ​ITP-SYM006

V

​Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) ​The practice of hosting a desktop operating system within a virtual machine (VM) running on a hosted, centralized or remote server. ​ITP-NET019
​Virtual Machine ​A software implementation of a computing environment in which an operating system or program can be installed or run. ​ITP-NET019

W ​ ​

​Wireless Communication Devices ​A device that transmits and receives data, text, and/or voice with a wireless connection to a network. This definition includes; but is not limited to, such devices as satellite and cellular telephones, pagers, wireless internet services, wireless data devices, wireless laptops, and cellular telephone/two-way radio combination devices. This definition does not include the radio devices that interface with the 800 MHz Statewide Radio System. ​MD 240.11